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Shire Global

Therapeutic Areas

Dry Eye Disease

Shire Focused On EyesDry Eye Disease (DED), an often chronic condition that can be progressive, is a common complaint to eye care professionals.1,2,3,4 DED is diagnosed by an eye care professional based on patient reported symptoms, such as eye dryness, overall eye discomfort, stinging, burning, a gritty feeling, or fluctuating blurry vision, as well as signs, which can be evaluated objectively by an eye care professional through various tests to determine the presence of dry eye disease.1,5

There are many possible causes of DED. Aging and female gender are recognized as traditional risk factors of DED, while modern risk factors include prolonged digital/computer screen time, contact lens wear, and cataract or refractive surgery.6,7,8,9 Due to today’s modern lifestyles and reliance on technology, there is no longer one face of dry eye.


Shire has developed the following resources to support disease awareness and education. Always speak with a physician or healthcare provider regarding any questions. 

For US Residents

Dry Eye Disease Infographic


  1. The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007 Apr;5(2):75-92
  2. Lienert JP, et al. Long-term Natural History of Dry Eye Disease from the Patient’s Perspective. Ophthalmology. 2015; 1-9. 
  3. Stern ME, Gao J, Siemasko KF, Beuerman RW, Pflugfelder SC. The role of the lacrimal functional unit in the pathophysiology of dry eye. Exp Eye Res. 2004;78(3):409-416.
  4. Stern ME, Pflugfelder SC. Dry eye: an immune-based inflammation. In: Dartt DA, Bex P, D’Amore P, Dana R, McLoon LK, Niederkorn JY, eds. Ocular Periphery and Disorders. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2010:381-389.
  5. National Eye Institute. Facts about dry eye. Accessed June 5, 2015.
  6. Paulsen AJ, Cruickshanks KJ, Fischer ME, et al. Dry eye in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study: prevalence, risk factors, and health-related quality of life. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;157(4):799-806.
  7. Sharma A, Hindman HB. Aging: a predisposition to dry eyes. J Ophthalmol. 2014; 2014:781683.
  8. Stern ME, Schaumburg CS, Pflugfelder SC. Dry eye as a mucosal autoimmune disease. Int Rev Immunol. 2013;32(1):19-41.; Shtein RM. Post-LASIK dry eye. Expert Rev Ophthalmol. 2011;6(5):575-582. doi:10.1586/eop.11.56.
  9. Hovanesian JA, Shah SS, et al. Symptoms of dry eye and recurrent erosion syndrome after refractive surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 2001; 27:577-84
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